Ermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA) preceded by an alkaline extraction, based on Delgado et al. [31]. Succinctly,Animals 2022, 12,7 ofapproximately 0.two g of freeze-dried L. digitata and diet samples were weighed into a 50 mL tube, followed by the addition of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) option at 25 v/v (1 mL) and ultrapure water (8 mL) (Milli-Q Element system, Millipore Corporation, Saint-Quentin, France). The samples had been extracted in triplicate and spiked with chemical requirements to make sure the analytical excellent, within a Heating Graphite Block System (DigiPREP MS, SCP Science, Baie-D’Urf QC, Canada) for 3 h at 90 C. Right after extraction, samples have been centrifuged and filtered with 90 mm filters (Filtros Anoia S.A., Barcelona, Spain). 2.four. Evaluation of Meat High-quality Traits The procedures for determination of meat pH, color, shear force, and cooking loss have been previously reported [19,20].AM251 site Briefly, pH was measured 24 h postmortem, in triplicate, on skinless and deboned muscles using a glass penetration pH electrode (HI9025, Hanna instruments, Woonsocket, RI, USA). The color parameters (CIELAB; lightness (L), redness (a), and yellowness (b)) have been measured in triplicate on muscle tissues applying a Minolta CR-300 Chromameter (Minolta camera Co. Ltd., Osaka, Japan), soon after the carcass was cooled for 24 h and also the meat was exposed to air for 1 h. Then, muscles had been stored in vacuum-sealed plastic bags at -20 C till cooking loss and shear force analyses. Afterward, meat was thawed at four C for 24 h, cooked at 80 C to attain a monitored internal temperature of 72 C, and kept at room temperature for two h. Muscle tissues have been weighed before and right after cooking for cooking loss determination. Afterward, muscle tissues were cut into strips (1 cm 1 cm 5 cm), and shear force was measured employing a texture analyser TA.Acivicin Epigenetic Reader Domain XTplus (Stable Microsystems, Surrey, UK) incorporated using a Warner ratzler blade and expressed because the mean peak value of at the least four replicates.PMID:35850484 2.five. Sensory Evaluation by a Trained Panel The sensory analysis was performed as outlined by the procedures described by Pestana et al. [19]. Briefly, meat samples have been cooked at 80 C in plastic bags until a monitored internal temperature of 78 C. Then, they were reduce (about 1 cm3 ), and eight randomly selected samples per plaque had been maintained at 60 C for every of the five panel sessions. The educated sensory panel was composed of ten educated panelists in the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal). Four attributes have been evaluated (tenderness, juiciness, flavor, off-flavors, and all round acceptability) by the panelists and classified according to an eight-point scale (1 becoming particularly difficult, dry, weak, and unfavorable; 8 becoming really tender, juicy, robust, and optimistic), except flavor and off-flavor that have been scored from 0 (absence) to 8 (quite intense). 2.six. Evaluation of Total Cholesterol, Diterpenes, Pigments, and Minerals in Meat Total cholesterol, and homologs of vitamin E have been extracted, in duplicate, from fresh muscle tissues (750 mg each and every), following the same process described for alga and diets, employing direct saponification, single n-hexane extraction, and HPLC analysis [19,27]. For determination of pigments inside the muscles, 2.five g of breast and thigh were weighed and stirred with five mL of acetone within the dark. This mixture was homogenized using a homogenizer (Ultra-Turrax T25, IKA-Werke GmbH Co. KG, Staufen, Germany) for 1 min, then centrifuged at 3000g rpm for 5 min. The super.