When NaNO3 is fixed (circles). The interaction involving NaNO3 and YE is damaging. Therefore, a higher NaNO3 level decreases phoenicin production (triangles). The model will not provide data as to what the optimal YE and NaNO3 levels are. DISCUSSION Carbon-induced phoenicin production. Within this paper, we investigated whether the production of phoenicin by the fermentation of wild-type fungi was a viable solution for industrial purposes for possible usage in quinone redox flow batteries. We demonstrated that phoenicin production was very reliant on the carbon concentration within the development medium; when utilizing CY- and YES-based media with differentJune 2022 Volume 88 Issue 12 10.1128/aem.00302-22Phoenicin SwitchApplied and Environmental MicrobiologyFIG 7 Predicted transformed phoenicin values versus sucrose levels at fixed levels of NaNO3 and YE, as indicated inside the key. Predictions were made from the numerous linear regression defined in equation 1. The vertical line signifies the sucrose level for optimal phoenicin prediction.concentrations of sucrose, it was possible to either completely inhibit or induce phoenicin production in P. atrosanguineum (Fig. 2C). This effect was conserved amongst a variety of Penicillium species (Fig. 5A). The capability to transform the production of a secondary metabolite so drastically by altering only the carbon concentration on the medium has, as far as we know, not been reported previously within the literature. Thus, we named this carbon-dependent induction of phoenicin production the phoenicin switch. The Penicillium species investigated belong to unique series, and with all the exception of P. phoeniceum and P. chermesinum, they belong to unique sections according to Houbraken et al. (35) (see Table S2 within the supplemental material). Thus, the species are usually not specifically related from an evolutionary viewpoint, suggesting that the phoenicin switch is extensively distributed in Penicillium species and not just amongst close relatives.Noggin Protein medchemexpress The selection of carbon supply was also investigated.Carboxypeptidase B2/CPB2 Protein supplier Through the addition of either sucrose, lactose, mannitol, glucose, or glycerol to YES30, it was probable to activate the phoenicin switch in P.PMID:23626759 atrosanguineum (Fig. 2D). Supplementing the medium with mannitol led for the highest phoenicin yield (1.77 six 0.19 g/L). Mannitol can be a polyol that accumulates in massive amounts in numerous filamentous fungi and has been speculated to play several vital roles in osmoregulation, sporulation, and protection against reactive oxygen species (40, 41). Having said that, why mannitol induces phoenicin production is inside the realm of speculation. YES-based medium supplemented with mannitol also led for the activation with the phoenicin switch in P. phoeniceum; nevertheless, CY-based medium with added mannitol led to no activation of phoenicin in P. phoeniceum, though it did in P. atrosanguineum, displaying that phoenicin production is induced differently amongst different species (Fig. S4). The effect of mannitol or other carbon sources on phoenicin production in the other Penicillium strains was not investigated, even though such a study may well yield beneficial insights relating to the activation of phoenicin. In such a future study, additional development circumstances for example diverse nitrogen sources could also be investigated to further recognize below which circumstances phoenicin is made. Phoenicin dimers and biosynthesis. The discovery of a phoenicin dimer in P. phoeniceum is quite intriguing as polymeric derivatives haven’t been describ.