Uence and only expressed in roots, and it has not been
Uence and only expressed in roots, and it has not been functionally characterized(Parenicovet al., 2003). These paralogous genes would be the result of duplications within the AP1/FUL gene lineage: whereas the origin of AP1 and FUL could be the outcome of a duplication that resulted within the euAP1 and euFUL gene clades coincident using the origin on the core-eudicots, the close paralogs AP1 and CAL are probably the outcome of genome duplication events correlated using the IDO1 Inhibitor Synonyms diversification on the Brassicaceae (Blanc et al., 2003; Bowers et al., 2003; Alvarez-Buylla et al., 2006; Barker et al., 2009; Figure 1A). The core-eudicot duplication was followed by sequence alterations in euAP1 proteins that created a transcription activation (Cho et al., 1999) and also a protein modification motif (Yalovsky et al., 2000). euFUL proteins as an alternative retained the six hydrophobic amino-acid motif which is characteristic of pre-duplication proteins (FUL-like proteins). The function of this motif is unknown (Litt and Irish, 2003; Figure 1A). Collectively euAP1 and euFUL genes promote floral meristem identity (Huijser et al., 1992; Berbel et al., 2001; Vrebalov et al., 2002; Benlloch et al., 2006). Additionally, euAP1 genes play a unique role inside the specificationfrontiersin.orgSeptember 2013 | Volume four | Short article 358 |Pab -Mora et al.FUL -like gene evolution in RanunculalesFIGURE 1 | Summary of: (A) duplication events, (B) functional evolution and (C) expression patterns of APETALA1/FRUITFULL homologs in angiosperms. (A) Gene tree displaying a significant duplication (star) coinciding together with the diversification of core-eudicots resulting in the euAP1 and the euFUL clades. The pre-duplication genes in basal eudicots, monocots and basal angiosperms are much more similar in sequence towards the euFUL genes and as a result happen to be named the FUL -like genes. Towards the right of the tree would be the genes which have been functionally characterized. In core-eudicots: PeaM4 and VEG1 from Pisum sativum (Berbel et al., 2001, 2012), CAL, AP1 and FUL from Arabidopsis thaliana (Ferr diz et al., 2000), SQUA and DEFH28 from Antirrhinum majus (M ler et al., 2001), LeMADS_MC, TDR4, MBP7 MBP20 from Solanum lycopersicum (Vrebalov , et al., 2002; Bemer et al., 2012; Burko et al., 2013), PGF from Petunia hybrida (Immink et al., 1999), and VmTDR4 from Vaccinium myrtillus (Jaakola et al., 2010). AGL79 is the Arabidopsis FUL paralog within the euFUL clade, even so, it was not incorporated in the figure since it has not been functionally CXCR3 Agonist Accession characterized but. In basal eudicots: AqFL1A and B from Aquilegia, PapsFL1 and FL2 from Papaver somniferum and EscaFL1 andFL2 from Eschscholzia californica (Pab -Mora et al., 2012, 2013). In monocots: WAP1 in Triticum aestivum (Murai et al., 2003), OsMADS18, 14, 15 in Oryza sativa (Moon et al., 1999; Kobayashi et al., 2012). (B) Summary from the functions reported for AP1/FUL homologs. Each and every plus-sign signifies that the function has been reported for a unique gene. The orange color highlights the pleiotropic roles of ranunculid FUL -like genes ancestral for the core-eudicot duplication. Red and yellow highlight the separate functions that core-eudicot homologs have taken on. Green indicates the newly identified part of FUL -like genes in leaf morphogenesis in Aquilegia and in Solanum. (C) Summary of gene expression patterns of AP1/FUL homologs in the course of the vegetative and reproductive phases. The purple colour indicates the areas where expression for every gene clade has been consistently reported (Immink et al., 1999; Moon et al.