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Folds, flattened or scalloping of Kerckring folds (Fig. ).Journal of Medicine

Folds, flattened or scalloping of Kerckring folds (Fig. ).Journal of Medicine and Life VolIssue , OctoberDecemberFig. WLE, Fissures (grooves) building a crackedmud SB-366791 web appearance within the duodenal bulbFig. WLE, Atrophy with visible vessel pattern in the duodenal bulbFig. WLE, Scalloping in the Kerckring folds in the descending duodenumFig. NBI, Proeminent submucosal vessels, and mucosal fissuresThese Finafloxacin cost markers are usually described inside the descending duodenum, with much less interest typically getting paid to adjustments in the duodenal bulb . A few of these markers also can be associated with other causes (nonceliac) of villous atrophy (VA) such as infectious (Giardiasis, little intestinal bacterial overgrowth, HIV enteropathy), druginduced (olmesartan, mycophenolate mofetil, methotrexate), autoimmune (autoimmune enteropathy, Crohn’s disease) and other individuals (tropical sprue, collagenous sprue, common variable immunodeficiency, unclassified sprue) . In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of these markers for CD in PubMed ID:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17916413 an adult population undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with no prior CD serologic workup.Materials and MethodsFig. WLE, Atrophy with reduction of duodenal foldsWe retrospectively evaluated sufferers who underwent upper GI endoscopy and presented one orJournal of Medicine and Life VolIssue , OctoberDecembermore on the following endoscopic options (atrophy, fissures, mosaic, or nodular pattern in the bulb second duodenum, scalloped folds, reduced or absent folds inside the second duodenum) or had been suspected for celiac illness, irrespective with the presence or absence of those markers. More than a period of years, among June and , individuals altogether met the criteria, but had been excluded from analysis since duodenal biopsy or CD serology was either not carried out or not readily available. In spite of the truth that duodenal erosions happen to be described in CD , patients with such modifications at endoscopy were excluded simply because they are far more often a consequence of peptic or NSAID injury. Endoscopies were performed by utilizing higher definition endoscopes (Pentax, Tokyo, Japan; and Olympus, Tokyo, Japan) by seasoned examiners who carefully inspected the duodenum as a part of the routine examination. All sufferers had biopsies sampled in the duodenum and were serologically checked for IgAtTG antibodies, serum IgA and EMA. CD diagnosis was created based on current readily available recommendations ,. Information analysis which includes sensitivity (Sn), specificity (Sp), positive predictive worth (PPV) and adverse predictive worth (NPV) was carried out by using SPSS Statistics v. (SPSS Inc Chicago, IL) and Epi Information (CDC, Atlanta, Georgia, USA). Outcomes have been expressed as mean standard deviation (SD) for continuous variables and proportion for categorical variables. Statistical significance was set at of CD. The presence of any endoscopic marker at endoscopy yielded a Sn of , with a modest PPV of . but extremely higher NPV which meant that the absence of endoscopic stigmata created a diagnosis of CD extremely unlikely. Bulb atrophy and reduction or flattening of Kerckring folds were probably the most frequent endoscopic markers observed within the study population, but their presence had a low diagnostic yield for CD (Sn , Sp PPV NPV . for bulb atrophy; Sn , Sp PPV NPV . for the reduction loss of folds in the descending duodenum). Scalloping, mosaic pattern and fissures (leading to a crackedmud look) were really characteristic for CD, with . and . specificity. The presence of these endoscopic signs grea.Folds, flattened or scalloping of Kerckring folds (Fig. ).Journal of Medicine and Life VolIssue , OctoberDecemberFig. WLE, Fissures (grooves) making a crackedmud look in the duodenal bulbFig. WLE, Atrophy with visible vessel pattern within the duodenal bulbFig. WLE, Scalloping of the Kerckring folds within the descending duodenumFig. NBI, Proeminent submucosal vessels, and mucosal fissuresThese markers are often described within the descending duodenum, with significantly less attention ordinarily becoming paid to changes within the duodenal bulb . Some of these markers may also be related with other causes (nonceliac) of villous atrophy (VA) including infectious (Giardiasis, modest intestinal bacterial overgrowth, HIV enteropathy), druginduced (olmesartan, mycophenolate mofetil, methotrexate), autoimmune (autoimmune enteropathy, Crohn’s illness) and others (tropical sprue, collagenous sprue, frequent variable immunodeficiency, unclassified sprue) . Within the present study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of these markers for CD in PubMed ID:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17916413 an adult population undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with no prior CD serologic workup.Components and MethodsFig. WLE, Atrophy with reduction of duodenal foldsWe retrospectively evaluated individuals who underwent upper GI endoscopy and presented a single orJournal of Medicine and Life VolIssue , OctoberDecembermore of the following endoscopic attributes (atrophy, fissures, mosaic, or nodular pattern within the bulb second duodenum, scalloped folds, lowered or absent folds within the second duodenum) or were suspected for celiac disease, irrespective of the presence or absence of these markers. Over a period of years, involving June and , patients altogether met the criteria, but were excluded from analysis because duodenal biopsy or CD serology was either not performed or not accessible. Despite the fact that duodenal erosions have been described in CD , individuals with such changes at endoscopy had been excluded since they are much more frequently a consequence of peptic or NSAID injury. Endoscopies had been performed by using high definition endoscopes (Pentax, Tokyo, Japan; and Olympus, Tokyo, Japan) by skilled examiners who very carefully inspected the duodenum as part of the routine examination. All patients had biopsies sampled in the duodenum and have been serologically checked for IgAtTG antibodies, serum IgA and EMA. CD diagnosis was produced in line with existing obtainable suggestions ,. Data evaluation including sensitivity (Sn), specificity (Sp), good predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) was carried out by using SPSS Statistics v. (SPSS Inc Chicago, IL) and Epi Info (CDC, Atlanta, Georgia, USA). Benefits had been expressed as imply common deviation (SD) for continuous variables and proportion for categorical variables. Statistical significance was set at of CD. The presence of any endoscopic marker at endoscopy yielded a Sn of , using a modest PPV of . but pretty high NPV which meant that the absence of endoscopic stigmata made a diagnosis of CD incredibly unlikely. Bulb atrophy and reduction or flattening of Kerckring folds have been by far the most frequent endoscopic markers noticed inside the study population, but their presence had a low diagnostic yield for CD (Sn , Sp PPV NPV . for bulb atrophy; Sn , Sp PPV NPV . for the reduction loss of folds within the descending duodenum). Scalloping, mosaic pattern and fissures (major to a crackedmud appearance) had been pretty characteristic for CD, with . and . specificity. The presence of these endoscopic indicators grea.

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