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Tion. PLHIV are markedly concerned about what their infection means for

Tion. PLHIV are markedly concerned about what their infection means for them and their children and they actively engage with health services to improve their own health outcomes. Many have risen above their illness and actively engage with their families and communities to reduce not only their own personalized stigma but also community stigma. Therefore, it is important that health workers understand the underlying contextual issues that influence their clients behaviour. Ko and Muecke [10] called it “cultural competence”, where health workers recognize and appreciate the significance of specific cultural values of PLHIV that shape their fertility decision making. By presenting themselves as normal and reducing their own self-stigmatization, PLHIV enhanced their acceptance by family members, community and health systems. Returning to work, building new homes, and having more children were some of the ways in which the participants were reevaluating their “spoiled” identity or the “dying” identity associated with having HIV [40]. Participants who had adjusted to their condition were more positive about having children in the future. This study revealed that resilience could be a positive outcome of the stigma process, an aspect that may assist PLHIV in coping with their HIV status. Delineating the influence of stigma on fertility desire and intent is essential for development of interventions aimed at reducing stigmatization of PLHIV and to the improvement in their quality of life. These findings are important for programme managers and other health and social personnel who work with PLHIV. Weiss et al. [48] proposed multi-level interventions targeting the individual with the Tyrphostin AG 490 molecular weight stigmatizing condition, the people who stigmatize, the disease and the community. Similarly, Logie and Gadalla [49], suggested that stigma-reducing interventions should operate on multiple levels and target several populations in order to be effective. Counselling would help PLHIV cope with their illness and enhance resilience in response to stigmatizing encounters. Cognitive behavioural therapy has also been found to reduce internal stigmatization and stress, and improve self-esteem [50]. PLHIV should also be encouraged to join peer groups. In such groups, PLHIV can feel normal and find relief from internalized and overt stigmatization [43]. PLHIV in UgandaNattabi B et al. Journal of the International AIDS Society 2012, 15:17421 http://www.jiasociety.org/content/15/2/17421 | http://dx.doi.org/10.7448/IAS.15.2.found a lot of support from PLHIV groups, developing feelings of solidarity [51]. Interventions aimed at the disease itself include HAART, which would reduce the signs and symptoms of the disease and improve overall quality of life of PLHIV [51]. HAART has been reported to reduce stigma through its effect on the ability of PLHIV to lead normal and productive lives, and reconstruct their “devalued, shattered identities” [52]. Interventions for the general public, such as community education, could improve the knowledge of HIV, correct misconceptions about risks of transmission and also enhance empathy with PLHIV [48]. Other community-based interventions include social AUY922 site marketing [49]. Health workers also need to understand the role of the health system in stigmatization of PLHIV and how their stigmatizing attitudes negatively affect PLHIV [45]. Identification of the role of the health system in mitigating or enhancing stigma can lead to improvements in.Tion. PLHIV are markedly concerned about what their infection means for them and their children and they actively engage with health services to improve their own health outcomes. Many have risen above their illness and actively engage with their families and communities to reduce not only their own personalized stigma but also community stigma. Therefore, it is important that health workers understand the underlying contextual issues that influence their clients behaviour. Ko and Muecke [10] called it “cultural competence”, where health workers recognize and appreciate the significance of specific cultural values of PLHIV that shape their fertility decision making. By presenting themselves as normal and reducing their own self-stigmatization, PLHIV enhanced their acceptance by family members, community and health systems. Returning to work, building new homes, and having more children were some of the ways in which the participants were reevaluating their “spoiled” identity or the “dying” identity associated with having HIV [40]. Participants who had adjusted to their condition were more positive about having children in the future. This study revealed that resilience could be a positive outcome of the stigma process, an aspect that may assist PLHIV in coping with their HIV status. Delineating the influence of stigma on fertility desire and intent is essential for development of interventions aimed at reducing stigmatization of PLHIV and to the improvement in their quality of life. These findings are important for programme managers and other health and social personnel who work with PLHIV. Weiss et al. [48] proposed multi-level interventions targeting the individual with the stigmatizing condition, the people who stigmatize, the disease and the community. Similarly, Logie and Gadalla [49], suggested that stigma-reducing interventions should operate on multiple levels and target several populations in order to be effective. Counselling would help PLHIV cope with their illness and enhance resilience in response to stigmatizing encounters. Cognitive behavioural therapy has also been found to reduce internal stigmatization and stress, and improve self-esteem [50]. PLHIV should also be encouraged to join peer groups. In such groups, PLHIV can feel normal and find relief from internalized and overt stigmatization [43]. PLHIV in UgandaNattabi B et al. Journal of the International AIDS Society 2012, 15:17421 http://www.jiasociety.org/content/15/2/17421 | http://dx.doi.org/10.7448/IAS.15.2.found a lot of support from PLHIV groups, developing feelings of solidarity [51]. Interventions aimed at the disease itself include HAART, which would reduce the signs and symptoms of the disease and improve overall quality of life of PLHIV [51]. HAART has been reported to reduce stigma through its effect on the ability of PLHIV to lead normal and productive lives, and reconstruct their “devalued, shattered identities” [52]. Interventions for the general public, such as community education, could improve the knowledge of HIV, correct misconceptions about risks of transmission and also enhance empathy with PLHIV [48]. Other community-based interventions include social marketing [49]. Health workers also need to understand the role of the health system in stigmatization of PLHIV and how their stigmatizing attitudes negatively affect PLHIV [45]. Identification of the role of the health system in mitigating or enhancing stigma can lead to improvements in.

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